Human societies (particularly Muslim ones) are challenged by certain questions on the Holy Qur’an such as: What are the aims of the Holy Qur’an, as a Divine Book of Allah sent down to the last Prophet in order to endow mankind with happiness? How can it guide mankind that is perplexed by many diverse problems towards the right and straight path? What are, in principle, the components of guidance towards the “Right Path” suggested by the Holy Qur’an?
The answer can be investigated through the contents of the very Holy Qur’an that suggests several ways in respect of perspicacity, propensity and practice. If we as believers in the Holy Qur’an follow these ways and standards, we will enjoy the benefit of some important achievements such as:
Distinguishing what is right from what is wrong on the level of perspicacity, promise, threat and piety to cure our spiritual illnesses on the level of propensity, and a society of justice on the practice.
To achieve what has been mentioned above, we are required to resort to the Qur’anic clues. Adherence to such a rich Qur’anic source has its particular requisites that must be accurately observed. Knowing the obstacles and upcoming challenges as well as knowing how to remove them are also two factors through which we can resort to the Holy Qur’an in order to reach our goal. In what follows, the author has undertaken the foregoing points in details.
A) The Purposes of the Holy Qur’an on the Level of Perspicacity
1. The Extrication from Obliviousness
One of the aims of the Holy Qur’an is to extricate people from negligence.
﴾[It is a scripture] sent down gradually from the All-mighty, the All-merciful that you may warn a people whose fathers were not warned, so they are oblivious.﴿1
The extrication, in this verse, from obliviousness is regarded as an objective of the Holy Qur’an. In order for such an objective to be put into practice, the Holy Qur’an holds the view that people are to be warned of dangers in order to come to their sense and be free from negligence. As a result of carelessness and obliviousness, man will totally lose his awareness of Allah, his true doctrines, and the ways toward perfection, let alone he should choose them, bend his heart upon them or move towards them. The Holy Qur’an says that some people have failed to bear in mind Allah,2 the Day of Judgment,3 and Divine Signs4, each of which plays a major role in the happiness of mankind.
2. The Recollection of the Forgotten
Through innate human nature, intellect and revelation, Almighty Allah has endowed mankind with significant truths which have been forgotten owing to man’s intimacy with worldly pleasures, satanic temptations and desires. One of the objectives of the Holy Qur’an is to remind people of those truths.
﴾It is just a reminder for all nations.﴿5
Man, according to the Holy Qur’an, often forgets many issues. Almighty Allah,6 His blessings7, His signs,8His covenant,9 the revealed laws and doctrines,10 the Day of Judgment,11 what one has done in the course of his life12 are among the issues which man easily forgets in his life, and it is therefore, necessary for him to be reminded of them. Because they have forgotten Allah, some people forget themselves and suffer from self-alienation.
“Those who forgot Allah, so Allah made them forget their own souls.”13
3. The Presentation for Sound and Necessary Insights
In the process of knowing Allah and the world, man has gone through some misunderstandings and failed to comprehend and attain a true knowledge of Allah, man and the world. This is because we cannot rely on the merely human faculties to obtain the required knowledge.
﴾And you have not been given of the knowledge except a little”14
﴾We have sent down the Book to you as a clarification of all things.﴿15
4. Offering the Manifest Proofs for Sound and Necessary Insights
In order to proceed on the road to his perfection, man needs to find the true and correct path; he must possess manifest proofs to quench his thirsty intellect and to be encouraged to follow up his way, letting no hesitation, regression, carnal desires, or satanic temptation mislead his intellect. The Holy Qur’an both shows the right path towards perfection and guarantees it through manifest proofs. This issue has been stated in several verses such as:
﴾With manifest proofs of guidance and the Distinguisher.﴿16
﴾Certainly a proof has come to you from your Lord.﴿17
5. Distinguishing the Right from the Wrong
One of the purposes of the Holy Qur’an is to provide man with standards by means of which he can distinguish the right from the wrong in complicated and disputable issues.
“We did not send down the Book to you except [for the purpose] that you may clarify for them what they differ about.”18
We can attain a great deal of truths through the heart, the intellect and the revelation, however, satanic temptations19 have distorted manifestations of the truths in one way or another; they even bring about many disputes over the clear-cut truths so that honest people would fail to completely distinguish the right from the wrong. As a guide for the well-intentioned, the Holy Qur’an sometimes states the truths in disputable issues and gives us some clues by means of which we can distinguish the right from the wrong, and in this way the Holy Qur’an seeks to take away the rust of satanic temptations from the guise of the truth.
6. Contemplating the Verses of the Holy Qur’an
Contemplating and scrutiny on the verses of the Holy Qur’an plays a vital role in understanding them. Many traditions have emphasized this fact and many others have described reading without contemplation as unblessed and useless. In the surah of Sad, verse 29, Allah says:
﴾A blessed Book that We have sent down to you, so that they may contemplate its signs.﴿
Understanding the miraculous harmony of the verses of the Holy Qur’an, according to the surah of al-Nisa, verse 83, rests upon contemplation, though in another verse Allah says: ﴾Do they not contemplate the Qur’an, or are there locks on the hearts?﴿20
“Thinking” is highly praised by the Holy Qur’an. Through recollection, explanation of the verses21, analogies, descriptions22, and reports of history, the Holy Qur’an in the best way23 makes man think over his life and the Hereafter24 in order to find his way towards perfection. The Holy Qur’an, for example, reminds us of the transience of this life and the permanence of the Hereafter, lest we should be deceived by this world or take it as our ultimate aim. In relation to thinking as one of the purposes of the Holy Qur’an, it says:
﴾We have sent down the Reminder to you so that you may clarify for the people that which has been sent down to them, and so that they may think.﴿25
8. Familiarity with the Uniqueness of Allah
Man cannot secure salvation unless he gets to the “unification of deity”, that is there is no God worthy of worship excepting Almighty Allah. This is why all Prophets called for the “unification of deity”. Having embraced it as the major purpose to guide people to salvation and eternal happiness, the Holy Qur’an endeavours to inform people of the unification of deity. Allah says:
﴾This is a proclamation for mankind… so that they may know that He is the One God.﴿26
B) The Purposes of the Holy Qur’an on the Level of Propensity
1. The Advice
In order for man to choose the right way of happiness, it is necessary to wake up from negligence and acquire sound and necessary insights as well as set his heart on them. The attraction of carnal desires and material world, however, freezes our heart and does not let us embrace the truths. The best road, in such a situation, is to follow advice which pacifies the heart and restores it to its original state. Thus, one of the names of the Holy Qur’an is “advice” as is stated in several verses:
﴾O, mankind! There has certainly come to you an advice from your Lord.﴿27
2. Warning and Giving Good News
Man’s voluntary activities can create favourable impression through awareness and motives. Mere awareness does not suffice to make man move along a certain way (whether right or wrong). A motive is a prerequisite as well. Man fails to move along the right path unless he possesses some motive to do what is right and be averse to doing what is wrong. Considering the consequences of his good or bad deeds, man ought to have some prior propensity to what is good and be averse to doing what is bad; he must quench his thirsty intellect with knowledge as well. This can only be done in the light of “warning” and “giving good news”. Having suggested this as one of its aims, the Holy Qur’an says:
﴾He has sent down the Book to His servant… to warn of a severe punishment from him and to give good news to the faithful.﴿28
- A Cure for Spiritual Illnesses
What plays a major role in accepting the truth and ascending the ladder of perfection and hence drawing closer to Allah is to take the rust away from the heart. Healing the spiritual and moral illnesses counts as one of the aims of the Holy Qur’an. The following verse corroborates this:﴾O, mankind! There has certainly come to you… a cure for what is in the breasts.﴿29
The phrase “a cure for what is in the breasts” is general and it may thus cover all kinds of internal illnesses such as unbelief [out of arrogance], hypocrisy, going stray from the right path and other similar illnesses that would not let one make spiritual progress.
4. Taqwa (Godwariness)
One of the purposes of the Holy Qur’an is to create a spirit of Godwariness and piety in man.
﴾An Arabic Qur’an, without any deviousness, so that they may be Godwary.﴿30
“Taqwa” (Godwariness) is one of the significant elements in the Qur’anic outlook. It principally means “self-wary” (i.e., to keep one’s eyes on oneself). Man constantly takes care of himself against all dangers. “Taqwa” may come both in theory and practice. The first stage of “taqwa” on the level of theory is to have a “spirit seeking after the truth” lest we should be involved in the wrong. When coming across the Holy Qur’an, a person with such a spirit will be guided by it and will embrace the divine signs and miracles. The first stage of “taqwa” on the level of practice is to keep away from all evil deeds which are contrary to human innate nature. This kind of “taqwa” may be called the “taqwa of innate nature”, for it is inspired by our innate nature. This, however, is the first stage of “taqwa” in terms of practice that begins with one’s conversion to Islam. Thereafter other stages of “taqwa” may be observed by one who seeks to attain the higher stages of the “Qur’anic guidance”.
c) The Purposes of the Holy Qur’an on the Level of Practice
He who has reached this stage sees himself encompassed with bountiful blessings of Allah, so he will manage to extend his thanks to God, the Benefactor. One would never manage to give his thanks if he did not know his benefactor or was unmindful of His blessings. Having recounted those blessings and reminded man that all he possesses proceeds from Allah, the Holy Qur’an paves the way for man’s thanksgiving. In such a situation, a grateful man comes to know his benefactor and realizes that all things belong to Allah, the Benefactor. He then manages to give his thanks to Him and goes on to worship Allah not because of his fear of Hell or of his yearning for Paradise, or rather, in order to extend his thanks to his benefactor.31
2. Establishment of a Just Society
﴾Certainly We sent Our apostles with manifest proofs, and We sent down with them the Book and the Balance, so that mankind may maintain justice.﴿32
“ ‘Adl” (Justice) and “qist” (equity) belong to the observance of the rights of other people; equity, however, pertain to putting the fair laws into practice. All revealed books including the Holy Qur’an, according to the Holy Qur’an itself, aim at the maintenance of equity “qist”, particularly public equity, which should be maintained by people themselves.
3. The Dominance of Allah’s Religion over Other Religions
“It is He who has sent His Apostle with guidance and the true religion that he may make it prevail over all religions.”33
The dominance of Allah’s religion and its prevailment over other religions counts as one of the social purposes of the Holy Qur’an. This can be made clear if we notice that the Holy Prophet Muhammad is the last apostle. It is noteworthy that true happiness can only be achieved in one’s nearness to Almighty Allah, which hinges on the dominance of the true religion over human society.
The Holy Qur’an states: ﴾Allah has promised those of you who have faith and do righteous deeds that He will surely make them successors on the earth, just as He made those who were before them successors, and He will surely establish for them their religion which He has approved for them, and that He will surely change their state to security after their fear, while they worship Me, not ascribing any partners to Me.﴿34
4. The Guidance toward the Secure Ways and the Right Path
﴾Certainly there has come to you a light from Allah, and a manifest Book. With it Allah guides those who follow [the course of] His pleasure… and guides them to a right path.﴿35
These ways may meet lengthwise and crosswise. One who walks through these ways will pass a kind of darkness to a kind of light until at last he goes through these secure ways on the road to guidance (i.e., the Right Path).
The Prerequisites for Making Use of the Holy Qur’an
1.The Quest for Knowledge and Certainty
One of the basic requirements of making use of the Holy Qur’an is to seek for knowledge and certainty in order to figure out and rely on truths rather than on conjecture, guess and the like. In its response to the polytheists and the rejection of polytheism, the Holy Qur’an constantly states that the polytheists have always gone after conjecture and blindly followed other opinions, doubts and the like without being certain. Anyway, those who want to build their lives on conjecture and follow their carnal desires will never make any use of the Holy Qur’an. In the surah of al- Tawba, verse 11 we read:
﴾We elaborate the signs for a people who have knowledge.﴿
And in the surah al-Baqarah, of verse 118 again we read:
﴾We have certainly made the signs clear for a people who have certainty.﴿
2. The Preoccupation with the Qur’an
﴾There is indeed an admonition in that (the Qur’an) for those who have heart [to take it into].﴿36
Due to sins and heedlessness, man sometimes leaves his heart to Satan, carnal desires, sensual instincts and evil doers. They thus rob his heart and he is then left with no heart. Such a man (i.e. he who has left his heart to another to do as he wishes) has no heart of his own accord to listen to the Holy Qur’an and to make use of it.
3. The Life and Watchfulness
In the surah of Yasin, verse 70, Allah says:
﴾So that anyone who is alive may be warned.﴿
Some people are dead at heart. No matter how many times you call on the dead, advise them or tell them the truth, they will give no answer. Those who because of their sins are dead at heart fail to understand and absorb the truths and divine verses of the Holy Qur’an and show no reactions, as though they had never heard of them. The hypocrites represent the full manifestation of such lifelessness while the faithful represent the full phenomenon of liveliness. The Holy Qur’an states:
﴾Is he who was lifeless, then We gave him life and provided him with a light by which he walks among the people, like one who dwells in a manifold darkness which he cannot leave?﴿37
4. Seeking Allah’s Pleasure
In addition to knowledge and awareness human beings should have a motive to do something intentionally. Motives, however, may differ from one person to another or from one situation to another. Some motives emanate from animal and sensual desires such as hunger and bodily pleasures and some others go beyond the level of animal soul. In the latter case, the former motives fail to motivate man for he seeks something higher than merely bodily pleasures. Concerning these people, Allah says:
﴾With it Allah guides those who follow [the course of] His pleasure to the ways of peace… and guides them to a straight path.﴿38
5. The Fear and Awe
In relation to warning and giving good news “fear” and “awe” count as among the other prerequisites for making use of the Holy Qur’an. Having introduced warning and giving good news as one of its aims, the Holy Qur’an reminds us that the hypocrites will never make any use of its warnings at all; it states:
﴾You can only warn someone who follows the Reminder (the Qur’an) and stand in awe of the All- beneficent in secret; so give him the good news of forgiveness and a noble reward.﴿39
In the Holy Qur’an, the term “khashya” (awe) relate to Allah, while the term “khawf” (fear) is mostly stated in relation to Hell torments and sometimes is associated with Allah’s presence. Thus, it has been said: “Awe is a sort of feeling of fear that one may have when one apprehends Allah’s majesty.” According to the Holy Qur’an, he who apprehends Allah’s majesty and as a result stands in awe of Allah will make use of the Holy Qur’an. Such an apprehension makes all things trifling in the eyes of mankind.40The fear of Hell torments prepares one to make use of the Qur’anic warnings. Some people have no fear of Hell torments because they have no faith in the Day of Judgment.
6. The Faith and Righteous Deeds
According to the Holy Qur’an, faith without righteous deeds and righteous deeds without faith bring about no happiness for mankind, because they together can lead us to the happiness and salvation. The Holy Qur’an, accordingly, suggests two other requisites for making use of the Qur’an: “faith” and “good deeds”. In the surah of Luqman, verses 2-3 we read:
﴾These are the signs of the Definitive Book, a guidance and mercy for the righteous.﴿
And in the surah of Hud, verse 120 we read:
﴾And there has come to you in this [Book] the truth and an advice and admonition for the faithful.﴿
7. Seeking the Right Path
The Holy Qur’an is an advice, an admonition and a reminder only for those who are determined to go after the right and straight path. The Holy Qur’an will never guide anybody at random or by force. It will not give a hand to one unless one makes up his mind to follow the right path. Having eliminated the doubts about the prophetic mission of the Holy Muhammad and the authenticity of the Holy Qur’an, the verses 27-28 of al-Takwir state:
﴾It is not but a reminder for all the nations, for those of you who wish to go straight.﴿
8. The Prostration and Glorification
A high degree of humility and servitude is one of the prerequisites for making use of the Holy Qur’an. Prostration is a full manifestation of servitude of the servant before Allah. In the collections of Hadith, it is narrated that if one knows the great favor of Allah he might win when prostrating he wishes not to raise his head from prostrating. In al-Isra’, verses 107 and 109 we read:
﴾Indeed those who were given knowledge before it when it [the Qur’an] is recited to them, fall down in prostration on their faces…weeping, they fall down on their faces, and it increases them in humility.﴿
9. The Vigil
Keeping a vigil, according to the surah of al-Sajda, verse 15, counts as one of the prerequisites for making use of the Holy Qur’an. It is, from the viewpoint of the Holy Qur’an, a means of great success. In al-Isra’, verse 79, Allah enjoins Holy Prophet:
“And keep vigil for a part of the night, as a supererogatory [prayer] for you. It may be that your Lord will raise you to a praiseworthy station.” And again in the first verses of al-Muzammil, He enjoins the Holy Prophet:
“Stand vigil through the night, except a little… Indeed soon We shall cast on you a weighty word.”
10. Spending Money for the Sake of Allah
Provide the needy with what they need in return for nothing except for the pleasure of Allah and as an altruistic duty is the last prerequisite for making use of the Holy Qur’an as stated in al-Sajda, verse16:
﴾And they spend out of what We have provided them with.﴿41
Accordingly, such spenders do not expect return or payment, for they know that they can not do their duty unless they spend honestly on the needs of the poor in such a way that they may not be disgraced. With this proviso, the spender only knows that he will win the favor and pleasure of Allah.
The Obstacles to Making Use of the Holy Qur’an
1. The Injustice
Injustice, that is to treat oneself or the others unfairly, counts from the viewpoint of the Holy Qur’an as one of the obstacles as making use of it let alone it is contrary to one’s perfection. Those who treat others unfairly have in fact committed two kinds of injustice: injustice to others and to themselves. They thereby fail to reach their due perfection. Polytheism has therefore been regarded as great injustice in the Holy Qur’an.
“Polytheism is indeed a great injustice”42.
For it is the major reason for being far away from Allah and hence from true perfection. Injustice means to refuse to give others their due rights and to disregard them. Then the related verses of the Holy Qur’an may apply not only to human beings but also to non-human beings. The Holy Qur’an has thus talked of all those who wrong the divine signs:
﴾Because they used to wrong Our signs.﴿43
To wrong the divine signs means to disregard and refute them, and with this meaning Allah says:
﴾And none contests Our signs except wrongdoer.﴿44
To unfairly treat others and to wrong them will at first make one practically refute the Holy Qur’an and its authenticity, though one may be convinced that the Holy Qur’an is true.
﴾They impugned them, thought they were convinced in their heart wrongfully and defiantly.﴿45
Rather than making use of the Holy Qur’an in order to cure one’s spiritual illnesses and win Allah’s mercy, in the second place, such a person will increase in nothing but his loss.
﴾And it increases the wrongdoers only in loss.﴿46
2. The Arrogance
The verse 15 of al-Sajda suggests that those who are not arrogant have faith in the Qur’anic verses. Arrogance which means to be proud of oneself and to think oneself above the truth makes one not embrace the truth and closes all the ways of happiness in front of him. On several occasions, the Holy Qur’an has talked about the arrogant men who resisted the divine call of the Prophets. Although they knew that the Prophets were right, they strived against the Prophets and denied their call. Satan counts as the first arrogant in the Holy Qur’an. Although he knew that it was the order of Allah and that Adam deserved to be the vicegerent of Allah, his arrogance made him refuse to prostrate before Adam (p.b.u.h.).
To treat the Holy Qur’an without just reason will not only make man not embrace the Holy Qur’an but also will make him justify such a treatment and ascribe the fault to the Holy Qur’an. As a poet at the time of revelation, al-Walid first appreciated and admitted the authenticity of the Holy Qur’an; however, impressed by the temptations and lures of the heads of infidelity, he began to be an arrogant person and said: ﴾It [the Qur’an] is not but magic handed down.﴿47 The Jews’ hostile relations with Muslims and the Christians’ amicable behavior toward Muslims, according to the Holy Qur’an, stem from the fact that the true followers of Jesus were not arrogant.
﴾That is because there are priests and monks among them, and because they are not arrogant.﴿48
3. The Indifference to One’s Past Evil Deeds
He who wants to make use of the Holy Qur’an ought to purify his soul from evils and so reconsider his past deeds. Those who shirk their responsibilities and ignore their past evil deeds or do not take them serious fail to make use of the Holy Qur’an. In the collections of Hadith, it is narrated that he who takes his evil deeds easy, and says that ‘if I am held responsible by this sin only, it will not matter’, Allah shall never forgive him for that sin.49Forgetting one’s past evil deeds makes one turn one’s back on the Holy Qur’an and thus pay no attention to its verses. In this regard, the Holy Qur’an says:
﴾Who is a greater wrongdoer than he who is reminded of the signs [verses] of his Lord, whereat he disregards them and forgets what his hands have sent ahead? Indeed We have cast veils on their hearts lest they should understand it, and a deafness into their ears.﴿50
4. The Lack of Belief in the Day of Judgment
The stronger one has faith in the Day of Judgment the more he makes use of the Holy Qur’an, and vice versa. Guidance by the Holy Qur’an, according to al-Baqara, verse 4, is conditional on certainty of the Hereafter. In al-Isar’, verses 45-46 we read:
﴾When you recite the Qur’an, We draw between you and those who do not believe in the Hereafter a hidden curtain, and We cast veils on their hearts, lest they should understand it, and a deafness into their ears.﴿
5. The Faithlessness and Polytheism
Faithlessness, in several verses, counts as an obstacle to making use of the Holy Qur’an. In al- Ankabut, verse 47, Allah says:
﴾And none contests Our signs (verses) except the faithless.﴿ And Again in al-Saba’, verse 31, He says:
﴾The faithless say: ‘We will never believe in this Qur’an’.﴿
Faithlessness leads man to impugn and reject the verses and true doctrines of the Holy Qur’an.
﴾And [what’s the matter with them that] when the Qur’an is recited to them they will not prostrate? Rather the faithless deny.﴿51
Not only is a polytheist, led by his polytheistic belief, unable to learn a lesson from the Holy Qur’an it also increases him in his hatred toward the Holy Qur’an and its true doctrines.
﴾Certainly We have paraphrased [the principles of guidance] in this Qur’an so that they may take admonition, but it increases them only in aversion.﴿52
This is why when they hear the verses of the Holy Qur’an they begin to dispute with the Holy Prophet in order to demonstrate their position on the Qur’anic truths.
﴾Certainly We have made this Qur’an interspersed with every kind of parable for mankind. But man is the most disputatious of creatures.﴿53
Such disputatious people would not like a verse or chapter be sent down to Muslims from Allah.
﴾Neither the faithless from among the People of the Book, nor the idolaters, like that any good be showered on you from your Lord.﴿54
6. Following One’s Desires, Mocking at the Verses, and Talking Nonsense
Following one’s own desire is the major factor in opposing the truths brought by the Prophets. Carnal desires tempt man into the animal soul while the Holy Qur’an and religious truths lead him to human perfections. Those who, for some reason, take their carnal desires as their god and let them rule over their heart and intellect deny the Holy Qur’an and thus fail to make any use of it.
In Muhammad, verse 16, Allah says:
﴾There are some among them who prick up their ears at you. But when they go out from your presence, they say to those who have been given knowledge, ‘What did he say just now?’ They are the ones on whose heart Allah has set a seal, and they follow their own desires.﴿
He who takes his carnal desires as the pivot over which he turns his views and behavior will follow the wrong way though he knows that he is wrong. Such a person will never find the right ways, for he has deliberately ruined his faculties of knowledge and the right path. He thus goes to impugn the word of the Holy Qur’an and begins to mock at it. He then goes on to buy what is nonsense instead in order to lead people astray from the right path.
﴾Among the people is he who buys diversionary talk that he may lead [people] astray from Allah’s way without any knowledge, and he takes it in derision.﴿55
1- 36: 5-6
2- 7: 205
3- 30: 7
4- 7: 136
5- 81: 27
6- 2: 152
7- 35: 3
8- 20: 126
9- 7: 51
10- 5: 14
11- 7: 165
12- 18: 57
13- 59: 19
14- 17: 85
15- 16: 89
16- 2: 185
17- 4: 174
18- 16: 64
19- 4: 82
20- 38: 29
21- 2: 221
22- 59: 21
23- 7: 176
24- 2: 21
25- 16: 44
26- 14: 52
27- 10: 57
28- 18: 1-2
29- 10: 57
30- 39: 28
31-“… and one group has worshiped Allah in order to extend their thanks to Him, this is the worship of the noble men.” (Bihar al-Anwar, Muhammad Baqir al-Majlisi, vol. 78, p. 69).
32- 57: 25
33- 48: 28
34- 24: 55
35- 5: 15-16
36- 50: 37
37- 6: 122
38- 5: 16
39- 36: 11
40- In his description of the Godwary, Imam Ali says: “Allah appears to them so great that everything excepting Him has become low in their eyes.” Nahj al-Balaghah, sermon 193.
42- 31: 13
43- 7: 9
44- 29: 49
45- 27: 14
46- 17: 82
47- 74: 24
48- 5: 82
49- “From among the unforgivable sins is one’s saying, ‘If only I would be held responsible by any sin except for this one.” (Ibid., Muhammad Taqi al-Majlisi, vol. 15, ch. 43, p. 312, n. 20612)
50- 18: 57
51- 84: 21-22
52- 17: 41
53- 18: 54
54- 2: 105
55- 31: 6-7